A single range-expanding species reshapes alpine ecosystems and their belowground diversity

Range expansion and alpine ecosystems

Lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) as seen here in the background have successfully co-invaded treeless ecosystems all over the globe along with their obligate fungal symbionts such as the yellow Suillus luteus seen here in the foreground. In Argentina, these mushrooms are often harvested to be eaten, dried, and sold, and comprise a significant portion of local economies. 


Oikos - 2023 - Eckert - A single range‐expanding species reshapes alpine ecosystems and their belowground diversity.pdf

Figure 1 — a) Illustrated examples of alpine ecosystems at various stages of invasion by Pinus contorta.  b) Different in environmental conditions and plant diversity across stages of range expansion. 

Figure 2 — Difference in fungal richness across different stages of range expansion for all fungi, decomposers, mutualists, and pathogens.